Suplementos de vitamina B podem proteger os rins de jovens com diabetes tipo 1, aponta estudo | Ciência e Saúde


Suplementos de vitamina B podem proteger os rins de jovens com diabetes tipo 1, aponta estudo | Ciência e Saúde

Ingerir suplementos de vitaminas do complexo B pode proteger os rins de pacientes com diabetes tipo 1: essa é a conclusão de estudo apresentado hoje durante encontro anual da Sociedade Europeia de Endocrinologia Pediátrica, na Grécia. Os testes foram realizados com 80 adolescentes, com 12 a 18 anos de idade, por pesquisadores da Universidade Ain Shams, no Cairo.



Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos. O primeiro ingeriu um tablete contendo as vitaminas B1, B6 e B12 uma vez ao dia. Após 12 semanas, apresentou melhoras no nível de glicose no sangue e na função renal. Uma parte dos 80 adolescentes serviu de controle e não recebeu as vitaminas.

Todos tinham a doença há pelo menos cinco anos e já recebiam tratamento tradicional para problemas nos rins (nefropatia) causados pelo diabetes.

“Detectamos níveis mais baixos de marcadores que indicam função renal ruim, sugerindo que as vitaminas do complexo B tiveram um efeito protetor e poderiam retardar a progressão da nefropatia”, explica a professora Nancy Elbarbary, líder do estudo.

O estudo mostrou uma diminuição nos níveis de homocisteína, uma substância que, de acordo com a pesquisadora, induz lesões renais e está associada a um aumento na quantidade de albumina (uma proteína) eliminada no xixi. Também houve queda no nível de glicose no sangue quando os pacientes estavam em jejum, além de quantidade menor de colesterol e triglicérides.

Segundo o endocrinologista Rodrigo Moreira, membro da diretoria da Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, a perda de albumina na urina — chamada de albuminúria — é algo que se tenta combater no tratamento do diabetes, pois indica problemas renais.

Quando o paciente tem diabetes tipo 1, o pâncreas não consegue produzir insulina, provocando altos níveis de glicose no sangue. “Uma das complicações dessa alta glicose é que ela entra nas células renais e destrói, progressivamente, essas células”, explica Moreira.

A professora Elbarbary avalia que o estudo dá suporte ao papel das vitaminas do complexo B em proteger os rins de pacientes diabéticos de nefropatia e, potencialmente, reverter a progressão da doença.

Mesmo assim, ela destaca que o estudo é relativamente pequeno e precisa ser repetido com grupos maiores, inclusive com a possibilidade de testes em adultos.

Moreira recomenda cuidado. “Os estudos que são importantes e avaliam o potencial de proteger o rim são feitos com pelo menos cinco mil pacientes e levam em torno de quatro a cinco anos”, alerta. “É assim que a gente consegue ver se o medicamento tem o efeito de proteger o rim. Um estudo de 12 semanas é muito mais para gerar uma hipótese, não permite uma conclusão”, afirma.

Ele lembra, ainda, que o excesso de vitaminas do complexo B pode trazer prejuízos à saúde, como alterações nos nervos. Além disso, o endocrinologista pontua que a relação entre ter diabetes e problemas nos rins não é obrigatória.

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